Sydney (NSW), Australia – GFG Alliance executive chairman Sanjeev Gupta has revealed that the company is planning to construct a steel plant in Whyalla, Australia. According to Sanjeev Gupta, the new plant will be the largest in the Western world, capable of producing 10 million tonnes per year, with the ability and infrastructure to double capacity in time. Continue reading GFG Alliance reveals Plans for new Mega Steel Plant in Whyalla, Australia
Essen, Germany – thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions has been awarded one of the largest fabrication and construction projects the company has ever handled in Western Australia. Under the contract, thyssenkrupp will design, supply, construct and commission large-scale stockyard machines for the BHP South Flank iron ore project in the central Pilbara region of Western Australia. The contract is valued at approximately €150 million (A$250 million).
Melbourne (VIC), Australia – Rio Tinto, together with joint venture partners Mitsui and Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal, have approved an investment of $1.55 billion (Rio Tinto’s 53 per cent share $820 million) to sustain production capacity at two projects which form part of the Robe River Joint Venture in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. Continue reading Rio Tinto: Major Investment to sustain Pilbara Iron Ore Production Capacity approved
Irving (TX), United States – On August 2, 2018, Fluor Corporation announced that it continues to support BHP in the delivery of the South Flank iron ore project located in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, which commenced construction in July. The project will be the largest iron ore processing facility ever built in Western Australia.
Perth (WA), Australia – On May 31, 2018, Conico Limited advised that the contracts have been awarded for the Pre-Feasibility Study for the Mt. Thirsty Cobalt Nickel Oxide Project. The project is a 50/50 Joint Venture with partner Barra Resources Limited.
Perth (WA), Australia – On May 28, 2018, Fortescue Metals Group (ASX: FMG, Fortescue) advised that the company’s Board has approved the development of the Eliwana mine and rail project, located in Western Australia’s Pilbara region.
Perth (WA), Australia – Arafura Resources Ltd. (ASX: ARU) has appointed Hatch Ltd. as Lead Engineering Study Manager for the Definitive Feasibility Study on Arafura’s 100%-owned Nolans Neodymium-Praseodymium Project in the Northern Territory, Australia. Arafura is planning to mine up to five million tonnes each year by open cut mining to produce 650,000 t of ROM ore as feed to a three-stage crushing circuit.
Burleigh Heads (QLD), Australia – Martin Engineering has announced the creation of its newest factory-owned manufacturing facility in Queensland, Australia. The company has been a supplier of premium components since 1944, providing bulk handling solutions and flow control equipment in the region through a licensee since 1978.
It was William Volk who has written my favorite textbook! I have kept a copy of its 1958 edition on my desk when I was making a living in the Port of Rotterdam. What I like most of all in Applied Statistics for Engineers is that Volk explains the properties of variances in such rich detail. My first copy is falling apart but I’m still as smitten with its contents as I was in 1958. Volk pointed out in his Preface that he was indebted to Professor Sir Ronald A Fisher (1890-1962). It didn’t take long to figure out why Section 7.1.4 Variance of a General Function in Volk’s 1958 textbook proved that each function does have its own variance. Stripping the variance off the weighted average cum kriged estimate set the stage for Matheron’s new science of geostatistics. This fact became of critical importance when my grasp of the properties of variances made it possible to prove that the intrinsic variance of Bre-X’s gold was statistically identical to zero. So I’m pleased that the properties of variances did indeed stand the test of time in Volk’s Applied Statistics for Engineers.
What did not stand the test of time are degrees of freedom. The concept of degrees of freedom is relevant in applied statistics but irrelevant in geostatistics. Degrees of freedom would have vanished without a trace if it were not for Table1.IV. Copper grade Prince Lyell in David’s 1977 Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation. Grant NRC7035 made it possible to put so much junk stats on paper. I have always applied Fisher’s F-test to prove spatial dependence between measured values in ordered sets. I did so with test results for ordered core sections from single boreholes but also with test results for ordered sets of on-stream measurements in mineral processing plants. Should Matheronian geostatistics be an integral part of geosciences? Or should it be rejected as a scientific fraud? Of course, it should be rejected! If only because geostatistics is messing up the study of climate dynamics!
Sir Ronald A Fisher (1890-1962) was knighted since he counted degrees of freedom for small data sets. Karl Pearson (1857-1936) devised the chi-squared distribution in terms of observed and expected ratios. He did so in his Galton Laboratory. Sir Ronald A Fisher went to Australia and worked for a while at CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization). He passed away in 1962 and was put to rest in Adelaide. He has never been awarded a Nobel price. My confidence in Sir Ronald A Fisher and his famous F-test is bound to last far beyond my time.
Margaret Armstrong migrated to France after she had completed her Master’s degree in mathematical statistics at the University of Queensland in the 1990s. Between Australia and CERNA, Mines Paris Tech, France, she may have paid too little attention Matheron’s new science of geostatistics. Or Matheron may not have told her that he had flunked his PhD thesis in 1965. But surely, Armstrong should have known all about Fisher’s F-test and about counting degrees of freedom. She could have told Professor Georges Matheron all about counting degrees of freedom. Why did Matheron confer on Armstrong a PhD in geostatistics s0 shortly after she had left Down Under and made landfall in the City of Lights?
William Volk in his Preface pointed out that his take of applied statistics is traceable to a course he had taught in 1951. The McGraw-Hill Book Company published the first print in 1958. Its frontispiece reads: “for Dorothy whose confidence is without limits”. What a touching view on confidence without limits! I bought my first copy in the 1960s when I was working in the Port of Rotterdam. I have placed Jan Visman’s 1947 PhD thesis on coal sampling and William Volk’s Applied Statistics for Engineers side-by-side on the same bookshelf. I have tried to find out more about Volk after we had come to Canada in 1969 but to no avail. I wanted to write a Wiki page about Volk, his textbook, and his grasp of variances as displayed in Section 7.1.4 Variance of a General Function and in Section 7.3 Confidence Range of Variances. I still wonder whether or not Volk was of Dutch decent.
It was fortunate to have met Jan Visman and Greg Gould on ASTM Coal and Coke. I found out the hard way that TUDelft did not teach Visman’s take on coal sampling. I have learned most about Visman and his sampling theory after he went from Ottawa to Edmonton. I wrote a Wiki page about Dr Jan Visman and his work. His sampling theory underpins the interleaved sampling protocol. It was readily accepted for mineral concentrates simply because it gives a single degree of freedom for each sampling unit. ASTM recognized me for 25 years of continuous membership in 1995. Good grief! All I really did was do what I like to do! The more so since Matheron’s curse of his novel science of geostatistics had not yet impacted my work. On a trip to Australia I lost a copy of Volk’s Applied Statistics for Engineers. What’s more, Australian customs confiscated my bag with red and white beans. I knew a bit about toads and rabbits but never thought red and white beans were as bad. I used my beans to prove that large increments give a higher degree of precision than small increments. Simple comme bonjour! Testing for spatial dependence between measured values in ordered sets was straightforward with on-stream analyzers. When Volk wrote about the power of Student’s t-test to detect a bias, he showed how to derive Type I errors and Type II errors. I have taken to talking about Type I risks and Type II risks.
Gy’s 1979 Sampling of Particulate Materials and Volk’s 1980 Applied Statistics for Engineers still stand side-by-side on the same shelf. Gy had mailed me a copy with his compliments and his invoice on Christmas 1979. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company has released it as Part 4 in Developments in Geomathematics. Part 1 is Agterberg’s 1974 Geomathematics and Part 4 is David’s 1977 Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation. Missing in Gy’s textbook between degenerate splitting processes and degree of representativeness are degrees of freedom. Gy points in Section 31.3 on page 381 to “a Student-Fisher’s t distribution with ν=N-1 degrees of freedom (DF)”. Gy was almost on the mark. His wordy gems struck me as Gy’ologisms! His references to Matheron’s new science of geostatistics are beyond the pale. Next to Gy’s 1979 Sampling of Particulate Materials, Theory and Practice on the same shelf stands David’s 1977 Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation, Journel & Huijbregts 1978 Mining Geostatistics, Clark’s 1979s Practical Geostatistics, and Mandel’s 1964 The Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data.
What Matheron and his disciples cooked up at a geostatistics colloquium on campus of The University of Kansas, Lawrence on 7-9, 1970 will not stand the test of time. Matheron conjured up Brownian motion along a straight line. His disciples stripped the variance off the distance-weighted average and called what was left a kriged estimate. Infinite sets of variance-deprived kriged estimates and zero kriging variances added up to the genuine scientific fraud of geostatistics.