Seit dem 2. April 2013 verfügt das Unternehmen KREISEL GmbH & Co. KG in Krauschwitz über ein eigenes Technikum und bietet damit ideale Bedingungen, die Auslegungsparameter für die Dimensionierung von pneumatischen Förderanlagen sowie die KREISEL eigenen Komponenten, z.B. Filter, KREISEL Dom Ventile oder Keramik-Zelleradschleusen, zu testen.

# POWX in Moskau

Jörg Lehmann, Redaktion Silo World, im Interview mit Bernd D. Fichtner, Geschäftsführer von OWP Ost-West-Partner GmbH und Veranstalter der POWX 2014

# Konstruktiver Explosionsschutz

Die Verarbeitung explosionsfähiger Stäube birgt für Personen und Anlagen in der Schüttgutindustrie ein hohes Risiko. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde in Deutschland die EU-Richtlinie 99/92/EG (ATEX 137, Betriebssicherheitsverordnung) umgesetzt: Diese definiert Mindestvorschriften zur Verbesserung des Gesundheitsschutzes und der Sicherheit der Arbeitnehmer, die durch eine explosionsfähige Atmosphäre gefährdet sind.

# Misch- und Granulieranlage für Dünge- und Futtermittel

Leistungsfähige Verfahrenstechnik spielt bei der Produktion von hochwertigem Monocalciumphosphat (MCP) eine mindestens ebenso wichtige Rolle wie die Qualität der eingesetzten Rohstoffe.

# Füllstandsmessung unter schwierigen Bedingungen

In der Schüttgutverarbeitenden Industrie werden die Rohstoffe in der Regel vor der Verarbeitung oder als Fertigprodukt in Silos gelagert. Eine fortlaufende Erfassung der Bestände, eine kontinuierliche Füllstandmessung, ist aus logistischen oder produktionstechnischen Gründen erforderlich.

# Mitgliederversammlung 2013 DSIV e.V

**Erfolgreiche POWTECH für den DSIV e.V.**

Junger Verband, erfahrene Kräfte: Kein Wunder also, dass auch bei der 2. Versammlung des Deutschen Schüttgut-Industrie Verbands (DSIV), diesmal auf der POWTECH 2013, das Interesse der Mitglieder groß und ihr Engagement außerordentlich war. Den Start besorgte der Vorsitzende Stefan Penno mit einem zügigen Vortrag der Regularien.

# Revision und Optimierung von Verladeeinrichtungen

**Anlagenmodernisierung als wirtschaftliche Alternative**

Bei der Verladung abrasiver Schüttgüter wie z.B. Baustoffe, die meistens in körniger, stückiger oder staubförmiger Form bestehen, sind die Verladeeinheiten Tag für Tag extremen Bedingungen ausgesetzt.

# Geostatistics for the Next Century?

An International Forum to honour Professor Dr Michel David for his contribution to geostatistics? What’s this world coming to! I read David’s 1977* Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* after Elsevier had published it. David’s work has never been a part of any ISO Standard. Yet, ISO Standards have been my bread and butter since I joined ISO/TC102 – Iron Ore in 1974. ASTM’s Board of Directors has awarded me in 1995 for continuous membership of *Section 5 Petroleum Products, Lubricants and Fossil Fuels*.

Tracing geostatistics to its roots in applied statistics is simple *comme bonjour*. It’s about as simple as to create spatial dependence where it does not exist! What a pity that interpolation between measured values does not give unbiased precision estimates for grades and contents! Stripping variances *off* distance-weighted averages AKA kriged estimates has made no sense at all in my work. Professor Matheron in 1970 put in place Brownian motion along a straight line! Good grief! Professor Dr Michel David showed in Fig. 203 on page 286 a set of measured values with df=8 degrees of freedom. He pointed out that his 1977 textbook is not for professional statisticians. I do agree!

Dr R A Blais and Dr G Perrault were not surprised that distance-weighted averages had metamorphosed into kriged estimates. The National Research Council of Canada kept Grant NRC7035 coming in convenient increments. Professor Dr Michel David’s 1988 *Handbook of Applied Advanced Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* added another 216 rambling pages.

Geostatistics converted Bre-X’s bogus grades and Busang’s barren rock into a massive phantom gold resource. Applied statistics proved the intrinsic variance of Bre-X’s gold to be statistically identical to zero. Are geostatistocrats still marching in place? It would have made sense to unravel what was wrong with Bre-X in 1993 rather than stringing Markov chains in 2014!

All events at Montreal, Quebec, Canada took place on June 3-5, 1993. Practitioners of geostatistics had flocked from far and wide to praise Professor Dr Michel David. He had completed in 1977 what was called *Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation*. Scores of geostatisticians were driven to assume spatial dependence between measured values in ordered sets. The more so since a few samples selected at different positions in a finite sample space do give infinite sets of distance-weighted averages AKA kriged estimates.

Professor Matheron’s new science of geostatistics was based on selecting a subset of any infinite set of kriged estimates, and on smoothing pseudo kriging variances to perfection. Assume spatial dependence between measured values, interpolate by kriging, smooth a lot, think a little, and rig the rules of mathematical statistics with impunity. Common sense dictates that testing for spatial dependence between measured values in ordered sets ought to precede interpolation by kriging. The more so since the variance has been stripped off each and every distance-weighted average AKA kriged estimate. Why work with an ordered set of kriged estimates and derive a semi-variogram? Why not work with an ordered set of measured values and derive a true sampling variogram? David’s 1977 *Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* is the worst textbook on this planet. Until David’s 1988 *Handbook of Applied Advanced Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* came along and made it worse!

It’s simple to create spatial dependence where it does not exist. What a pity that interpolation between measured values does not give unbiased precision estimates! Stripping variances off distance-weighted averages AKA kriged estimates made no sense at all in my work. Professor Matheron in 1970 put in place Brownian motion along a straight line! Good grief! Professor Dr Michel David showed in Fig. 203 on page 286 a set of measured values with df=8 degrees of freedom. He pointed out that his 1977 textbook is not for professional statisticians. I do agree!

Dr R A Blais and Dr G Perrault were not at all surprised that distance-weighted averages had metamorphosed into kriged estimates. The National Research Council of Canada kept Grant NRC7035 coming in convenient increments. Professor Dr Michel David’s 1988 *Handbook of Applied Advanced Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* added another 216 rambling pages.

Here’s a take on his 1988 *Handbook of Advanced Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation*. It was geostatistics that converted Bre-X’s bogus grades and Busang’s barren rock into a massive phantom gold resource. Applied statistics proved the intrinsic variance of Bre-X’s gold to be statistically identical to zero. How many geostatistocrats are still marching in place? It would have made more sense to unravel what was wrong with Bre-X in 1993 than stringing Markov chains in 2014!

All events at Montreal, Quebec, Canada took place on June 3-5, 1993. Practitioners of geostatistics had flocked from far and wide to praise Professor Dr Michel David. He had completed in 1977 what was called* Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation*. Scores of geostatisticians were driven to assume spatial dependence between measured values in ordered sets. The more so since a few samples selected at different positions in a finite sample space do give infinite sets of distance-weighted averages AKA kriged estimates.

Professor Matheron’s new science of geostatistics was based on selecting a subset of some infinite set of kriged estimates, and on smoothing pseudo kriging variances to perfection. Assume spatial dependence between measured values, interpolate by kriging, smooth a lot, think a little, and rig the rules of mathematical statistics with impunity. Common sense dictates that testing for spatial dependence between measured values in an ordered set ought to precede interpolation by kriging. The more so since the variance has been stripped off each and every distance-weighted average AKA kriged estimate. Why work with ordered sets of kriged estimates and derive semi-variograms? Why not work with ordered sets of measured values and derive real sampling variograms? Why not count degrees of freedom of ordered sets? David’s 1977 *Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* was the worst textbook on this planet. Until his 1988 *Handbook of Applied Advanced Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* came along and made a worse read!

# Nachweis von Tensiden

Das Unternehmen RTG Cleantech sorgt mit der Neuentwicklung eines Tensid-Analysegeräts weiter für Furore, denn damit lässt sich erstmals in der Produktion ein praktikables Messverfahren einsetzen. Die dadurch mögliche exakte Bestimmung des Tensid-Gehalts vor Ort, führt zu besseren Reinigungsergebnisse, Kosteneinsparungen und einem Qualitätsnachweis gegenüber der Kunden.

# Sampling and Ore Reserves

The *Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada *(PDAC) approved the above title in the 1990s. It did so to set the stage for a seminar at the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Ontario for Saturday, March 23, 1991. I was tickled pink to be the first speaker. My textbook on *Sampling and Weighing of Bulk Solids *had been* *translated into Mandarin. I had asked for a royalty but ended up with a cup of green tea! The interleaved sampling protocol had been tested and was incorporated in several *ISO Standard Methods*. Professor Dr Michel David took a seat close to where I stood behind a lectern. He may have listened but posed no questions. He had studied how Matheron’s new science of geostatistics should be put into practice! Matheron and his disciples had done so by stripping the variance ** off **the distance-weighted average and calling what was left a kriged estimate. Infinite sets of distance-weighted averages AKA kriged estimates and zero kriging variances metamorphosed into the heart and soul of Matheron’s new science of geostatistics. So much so that the world’s mining industry embraced his novel science with reckless abandon. All I did was prove the intrinsic variance of gold at Bre-X’s property to be statistically identical to zero. But it did take a sound grasp of the properties of variances!

I have kept David’s 1977 *Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation *and Volk’s 1958 *Applied Statistics for Engineers *side-by-side on a bookshelf*.* Dr David didn’t know how to derive unbiased confidence limits for contents and grades of reserves and resources. What’s more, David did not know how to test for spatial dependence between ordered sets of measured values by applying Fisher’s F-test to the variance of the set and the first variance term of the ordered set. In Table 1.IV on page 25 Dr David pointed to the chi-square distribution for copper grades at *Prince Lyell*. David’s *Index s*hould have but did not refer to degrees of freedom on page 358. He should have listed degrees of freedom between *deflected holes* and *density.* Neither Professor Matheron nor any disciple such as Professor Dr David grasped how to test for spatial dependence between measured values in ordered sets.

*Elsevier *S*cientific Publishing Company* printed the First Edition of *Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation* in The Netherlands in 1977. Reprints were distributed in 1978, 1979 and 1982. None showed how to test for spatial dependence between ordered sets, or how to derive unbiased confidence limits for metal contents and grades of ore reserves. David cautioned that *“… statisticians will find many unqualified statements…”* and that *“… it is not a book is not for professional statisticians…”* Did he ask professional statisticians to show him how to test for spatial dependence and how to count degrees of freedom? Did David know how to derive unbiased confidence intervals and ranges for metal contents and grades of reserves and resources?

Here’s what Professor Dr Michel David revealed in his Introduction: *“The financial help of the National Research Council of Canada (Grant NRC7035) is gratefully acknowledged as well as the opportunity to use the drafting facilities of the department of Mineral Engineering at Ecole Polytechnique.” *One more contribution of Professor Dr Michel David to the evolution of Professor Georges Matheron’s science of geostatistics surfaced in his 1988 *Handbook of Applied Advanced Geostatistical Ore Reserve Estimation*. The author explicates: *“This work was produced at Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal and its services are greatly appreciated. Many of the results presented were obtained in the course of research funded by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant 7035)”. *Dr Roger A Blais*, CC, OQ, MSRC, *played a pivotal in keeping grant 7035 coming. I was left to unscramble the Bre-X fraud after geostatistical software had converted Bre-X’s bogus gold grades and Busang’s barren rock into a massive phantom gold resource. And I did!